CAA full form Citizenship Amendment Act (Bill). This law has been brought by the Government of India. The CAA came into force in India on 10 January 2020.
Hindus, Jains, Parsis, Sikhs, Christians, and Buddhists who have come to India by 31 December 2014, can take citizenship, who have come to India from Pakistan or Afghanistan after suffering religious persecution.
On the basis of CAA, people of Hindus, Jains, Parsis, Sikhs, Christians, and Buddhists will get citizenship in India if they stay in India for 5 years.
Previously, after 11 years of stay in India on the basis of this 1955 citizenship law, he can take citizenship of India but it was reduced from 11 years to 5 years in 2019.
On the basis of CAA, citizens of all religions except people of the Muslim faith can take citizenship and they will not be considered illegal migrants either.
CAA will not be applicable in tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura as the area it is in is included in the Sixth Schedule of the government.
The Sixth Schedule means this area is only for the tribals and to protect their cause. The CCA has not been functioning there.
This law applied even in areas with inner line permits like Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland and Mizoram.
What caused the CAA controversy?
All religions are described in the CAA except the Muslim religion.
Some believe that CAA violated Article 14. These people were chosen on religious grounds which is considered a violation of the right to equality.
The CAA is opposed mainly in the northeastern states because those people feel that if someone from other countries comes to their states then their problems will increase in everything from employment to their lifestyle and that is why they are opposing it.
It also violates the Assam Accord, meaning that all Bangladeshis who came to Assam after 25 March 1971 will have to return.
Bangladeshis from Assam from 1966 to 1971 were granted Indian citizenship and all other facilities will also be provided but they cannot vote.
After 25 March 1971, whoever has come from another country, be it Muslim or Hindu Sikh, or Christian, of them, will have to return from India.
All those who came to India by 31 December 2014 on the basis of CCA will be given Indian citizenship except Muslims, and this is clearly a violation of the Assam Accord.
To take citizenship in India, 31313 people from all religions of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh have applied. They will be given direct Indian citizenship. All these people are living in India on long-term visa.
Out of this, more than 25,000 Hindus, 6000 Sikhs, 2 Buddhists, and people of Christianity are also included.
Government’s Logic and Reality
The government says that in 1947, India and Pakistan were divided on the basis of religion.
And even then, there are a small number of people of other religions living in Pakistan and Bangladesh who are tortured a lot and those people can take Indian citizenship.
Only people from Bangladesh, Pakistan, or Afghanistan are mentioned on the basis of CAA.
If we talk, Tamil-speaking people are harassed more in Sri Lanka too. Those people are not mentioned here.
And on the basis of religious persecution, there is a lot of persecution against Rohingya Muslims. In CAA there is no rule for them.
Based on Census 2011, there are 55 lakhs of people in India who are outsiders. It is only 0.44% of the total population of India.
This includes 23 lakh Bangladeshi, 7 lakh Pakistanis, and 7000 Afghanis.
If seen according to the percentage, then it looks very less. If it is seen by number, then it is 5500000. It would be very difficult even if we want to settle in one state or even in different states.