RNA full form is Ribonucleic acid. It is formed in the cells of the cell, not in the nucleus. Most of the RNAs are found in the cytoplasm.
The number of RNAs in the cell is not fixed because the molecules per thousand cells are produced every time.
Similar to DNA, molecules of RNA are also made of four types of nucleotide monomers, and the nucleotide molecules of RNA are called ribonucleotides. The number of ribonucleotides in molecules of RNA usually ranges from 70 to 12000.
The molecules of RNA are one point and range from 3 ‘to 5’. The molecules of RNA are ribose sugar in ribonucleotides and are linked by bonds of 3 ‘to 5’ phosphodiesterase.
RNA’s ribonucleotides are of 4 types:
- Adenosine monophosphate(AMP)
- Guanosine monophosphate(GMP)
- Cytidine monophosphat(CMP)
- Uridine monophosphate(UMP)
RNA mainly contains thiamine. So the nitrogen base found in RNA is adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil.
Intermolecular bearing is found in between nucleotides known in the polynucleotide chain of RNA.
Types of RNA
There are mainly three types of Messanger RNA (mRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA), and Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): It is generated by DNA transcription of a functional gene located in the nucleus. Transcription of per DNA mRNA is made. The synthesis of the polypeptide chain determines the order of amino acid content.
It carries the transcript of the transcribed message to the cytoplasm outside the nucleus and it binds to the ribosome to determine the amount of acid in the synthesis of the polypeptide chain. There is a specific type of mRNA for each type of protein.
Two scientists named François Jacob and Jacques Monod named it mRNA.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNA carries out the amino acids present in the cytoplasm to the ribosome and binds the amino acids in a particular fit in the polypeptide chain by joining them at different places on top of the mRNA in the ribosome.
On completion of this work, the tRNA returned and the process starts again.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): It is first joined with the molecules of the protein. After joining it forms the subunit of the ribosome.rRNA is a constructive function mRNA and TRMS are active molecules.
rRNA is 80% of the total RNA of the cell and the ribosome contains 65% rRNA and the rest 35% is protein.
DNA vs RNA
- DNA contains deoxyribose sugars and RNA contains ribose sugar.
- The number of nucleotides in DNA is up to 4 million whereas in RNA the number is up to 25000.
- DNA controls the substances in the cell. RNA contributes to protein synthesis.
- DNA is 2-point while RNA is single-point.
- There are two parallel series of nucleotides in DNA. RNA has only one chain of nucleotides.
- DNA has the ability to be diploid while RNA cannot diploid.
- DNA carries genetic traits from one generation to another while RNA generates the proteins required for the development of traits according to the information of the synthesis of genes.
- Chromosomes in DNA are found in the nucleus, mitochondria, etc. It is mainly found in the nucleus. RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It is mainly found in the cytoplasm.